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JOURNAL

of the

ombay Natural History

Society

fiOV d 1P77

Vol. 74, No. 1 Editors'. J. C. Daniel, P. V. Bole & A N. D. Nanavati

APRIL 1977

Rs. 35

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Editors, Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society.

VOLUME 74 No. 1— APRIL 1977

Date of Publication: 12-8-1977

CONTENTS

Page

Breeding habits and associated phenomena in some Indian bats. Part I Rouset- tus leschenaulti (Desmarest) Megachiroptera. By A. Gopalakrishna and

P. N. Choudhari. {With a plate and two text-figures) . . . . . . 1

Fishes of Khasi Hills, Meghalaya (India), with observations on their distri- butional pattern. By G. M. Yazdani . . . . . . 17

Additions to the list of aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) from India and adjacent

countries. By A. K. Ghosh . . . . . . . . 29

Additions to the flora of Rajasthan. By Vijendra Singh . . . . 45

Further studies on the identification of hairs of some Indian Mammals.

By B. R. Koppiker and J. H. Sabnis. {With thirteen text-figures) . . . . 50

Status and ecology of the Barasingha {Cervus duvauceli branderi) in Kanha

National Park (India). By Claude Martin. {With twenty-four figures) . . 60

New Descriptions:

A new species of Skink of the genus Dasia Gray 1889 (Reptilia: Scincidae) from Car

Nicobar Islands, India. By S. Biswas and D. P. Sanyal. {With three text-figures) 133

Two new species of frogs (Ranidae) from Khasi Hills, India. By R. S. Pillai and

S. K. Chanda. {With three text-figures) .. .. .. ..136

A new species of Scorpion of the Genus Scorpiops Peter (Family Vejovidae) from

India. By B. K. Tikader and D. B. Bastawde. {With eleven text-figures) . . 140

Description of two new species of Wolf-Spider (Family Lycosidae) from Ladakh,

India. By B. K. Tikader. {With six text-figures) . . . . 144

A new species of Rove Beetle from India (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) . By T. R. Kem

and Swaraj Ghai. {With a text- figure) . . . . . . 147

Reviews :

1. Fiddler Crabs of the World: Ocypodidae: Genus Uca. (R. Altevogt) .. 149

2. Birds of Nepal. (Lavkumar Khacher) . . . . . . . . 150

3. Proceedings from the Symposia of the fifth Congress of the International Primatological Society. (L. S. Ramaswami) . . . . . . 151

4. Wild cats of the World. (R. S. Dharmakumarsinhji) .. .. 155

Miscellaneous Notes:

Mammals: 1. Taxonomic status of Megaderma spasma majus Andersen (Chiroptera: Megadermatidae) . By Y. P. Sinha (p. 156); 2. Some observations on the breeding habits and growth of Jungle Cat {Felis chaus) in captivity. By L. N. Acharjyo and S. Mohapatra (p. 158); 3. Wild Ass in the little Rann of Kutch. By Yuvraj Digvijay Sinh (p. 159); 4. The Indian Rhino {Rhinoceros unicornis) in captivity. By E. M. Lang (p. 160); 5. Takin {Bud- orcas taxicolor) in captivity. By Tun Yin (p. 160); 6. Lepus arabicus Ehrenberg from Jammu and Kashmir: An addition to the Mammalian Fauna of India. By S. Chakraborty

(p. 161); 7. New record of Indian Gerbille, Tatera indica (Hardwicke) as a predator on the alate forms of the termites at Ludhiana (Punjab). By G. S. Mann (p. 162); 8. Repro- ductive activity of Mus spp. in crop fields at Ludhiana. By G. S. Mann and O. S. Bindra (p. 162); 9. Sex ratio at birth in some captive mammals. By L. N. Acharjyo and S. Moha- patra (p. 167).

Birds: 10. Discovery of a Pelicanry in Karnataka. By S. G. Neginhal (p. 169); 11. White- winged Wood Duck in Burma. {With a map). By Tun Yin (p. 171); 12. The Goliath Heron (Ardea goliath) in Sind, Pakistan. By M. Naser-ud-Deen Khan (p. 172); 13. The southern limits of the Himalayan Cuckoo Cuculus saturates saturates (Blyth). By Humayun Abdul- ali (p. 172); 14. Period of incubation in Brahminy Myna, Sturnus pagodarum (Gmelin). By B. S. Lamba and A. K. Tyagi (p. 173); 15. Occurrence of Brown Shrike, Lanius cris- tatus cristatus Linnaeus, near Dehra Dun (U.P.). By B. S. Lamba and M. L. Narang (p. 174); 16. Studies on the feeding habits of House Sparrow Passer domesticus (L.) and its nestling in Punjab. By G. S. Simwat (p. 175); 17. Ortolan Bunting (Emberiza hortulana Linn.) in Kutch, Gujarat. By K. S. Dharmakumarsinhji (p. 179).

Amphibia: 18. Extension of range of the frog Rana crassa Jerdon, to Western Himalayas, U.P. By R. N. Chopra and K. Kumar (p. 180).

Reptiles: 19. Echis in trees. By Lavkumar J. Khacher (p. 180); 20. Observations on the structure of the Hemipenis in some Indian Snakes. (With four text-figures) . By J. H. Sabnis and S. S. Indurkar (p. 181); 21. New locality record with remarks on the Tucktoo Lizard, Gekko gecko (Linnaeus) [Sauria: Gekkonidae] from Tripura. By S. K. Talukdar (p. 184).

Fishes: 22. Distributional range of Waitea buchanani Visweswara Rao (Pisces: Gobiidae) in Indian waters. By Kaza V. Rama Rao and T. Venkateswarlu (p. 185); 23. A note on the systematic position of Ctenotrypauchen microcephalia (Bleeker) (Fam. Taenioididae) . (With two text-figures). By A. G. K. Menon and T. K. Chatterjee (p. 186); 24. Mahseer in Ramganga River, U.P. By C. E. McGready (p. 188).

Arachnida: 25. Lycosid spiders feeding on juveniles of the Skipper Frog Rana cyanophlyctis Schneider. By B. D. Sharma and Tej Sharma (p. 189).

Insects : 26. Additions and alterations to the list of Butterflies of Nagalapuram Hills pub- lished in Vol. 52 Nos. 2 & 3— Aug.-Dec. 1954. By A. E. G. Best (p. 189); 27. Additions and alterations to my list of the Butterflies of Bombay and Salsette Vol. 50 No. 2 Dec. 1951. By A. E. G. Best (p. 190); 28. On the specific identity of termite Reticulitermes assamensis Gardner (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae : Heterotermitinae) from Assam, India. (With a text- figure). By M. L. Thakur (p. 191); 29. Sex reversal and hexagonal Lac cell formation. By S. Mahdihassan (p. 195); 30. The black ant, Camponotus sp. feeding on urea. By S. Mahdi- hassan (p. 197); 31. On the larva of Tramea Virginia (Rambur, 1842) from India, with notes on the larvae of Indian representatives of genus Tramea Hagen, 1861 (Libellulidae : Odo- nata). (With ten text-figures). By A run Kumar and Mahabir Prasad (p. 199); 32. Colour aberrance in Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). (With ten text- figures). By J. P. Singh and J. S. Mann (p. 202).

Other invertebrates: 33. The predatory Centipede Scolapendra sp. By Lavkumar Khacher (p. 204); 34. Occurrence of Bipalium kewense Moseley (Turbellaria : Tricladida) in India. By B. D. Sharma and Tej Sharma (p. 205).

Botany: 35. Eria pudica Ridl. (Orchidaceae) A new find from Khasi and Jaintia Hills. (With a text-figure). By N. C. Deori and C. L. Malhotra (p. 205); 36. A note on Lolium duthiei (Hack, ex Hook, f.) Baruna Bhattacharya. (With a text-figure). By Baruna Bhatta- charya (p. 207); 37. Galium palustre L. and Eleocharis acicularis (L.) Roem et Schult. Two new plant records for India. (With two text-figures). By A. Majeed Kak and G. N. Javeid (p. 208) ; 38. On the identity of Adiantum lyratum Blanco. By N. C. Nair and S. R. Ghosh (p. 210); 39. Ipomoea leari Paxt. a naturalised plant of India. By Debika Mitra and Bhabesh Roy (p. 211).

JOURNAL

OF THE

BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY

SOCIETY

977 APRIL Vol.74 No. 1

Breeding habits and associated phenomena

in some Indian bats

Part I Rousettus leschenaulti (Desmarest) Megachiroptera1

A. GOPALAKRISHNA AND P. N. ChOUDHARI

Department of Zoology, Institute of Science, Nagpur (With a plate and two text- figures)

The following report is based on the examination of 1367 specimens of the Indian fruit bat, Rousettus leschenaulti (Desmarest) collected at frequent intervals at and near Auran- gabad, Maharashtra during a period of about two years and a half. There is no segre- gation of the specimens on the basis of sex, age or season. The uterine cornua open inde- pendently through separate cervical canals into the vagina. Each female experiences two pregnancies in quick succession in the year. The first pregnancy starts in the second week of November and terminates in the middle of March. The second pregnancy starts soon after parturition and goes until the last week of July. Gestation lasts for about 125 days. The early part of the second pregnancy overlaps the lactation period of the first preg- nancy cycle. The animals are sexually quiescent from August to November. While most of the females in the colony become pregnant in November, a few become pregnant in the third week of December and deliver their young during the last week of April or early in May. After December all the females in the colony are pregnant. During each preg- nancy only one uterine cornu bears a single embryo, and the two uterine cornua function alternately in successive cycles in bearing pregnancy. Whereas the females reach sexual maturity within five months of age, the males do not attain sexual maturity until they are at least 15 months old. There is a balanced sex ratio at birth, but in the adult stage the females out-number the males.

Introduction

'lost of the early record on the reproduction f Megachiroptera are in the nature of casual Terences to the occurrence of pregnant speci-

1 Accepted September 1975.

mens during certain seasons of the year while reporting on some other aspect of the biology of bats. An excellent review of the previous work on the reproduction of fruit bats was given by Baker & Baker (1936), and more recently by Asdell (1964), who compiled a valuable bibliography of the earlier work on

JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 74

the reproduction of fruit bats. From these re- views it is evident that most of the fruit bats, both in northern and southern hemispheres, tend to copulate in the respective "Autumn" and give birth to the young in the following "Spring".

Baker & Baker (1936), who were the first to make a detailed study of the breeding habits of fruit bats, Pteropus geddiei and Pteropus eotinus from Hog Harbour, New Hebrides (15° 15' S), noted that these species have a sharply defined breeding season although liv- ing in an almost unvarying tropical climate, and that they copulate in February-March (Southern Autumn) and deliver the young during August-September (Southern Spring) bringing forth a single young each time.

Marshall (1947) reported that Pier opus g'ganteus from Sri Lanka has a sharply defined annual breeding season despite the climatic stability of its habitat. According to the author, this species conceives from early December until early January, and the young ones are delivered late in May or early in June. Preg- nancy lasts for about six months and a single young is born to each female. Ramakrishna (1947) noticed that Cynopterus sphinx sphinx at Bangalore (South India) experiences post- partum oestrus and that at least two preg- nancies occur in quick succession in the year. He also noted that gestation lasts for about five months in this bat.

Moghe (1951) noted that Pteropus giganteus in Central India copulates late in August or early in September and that a single young is delivered by each female towards the end of January or February, the gestation being of 140 to 150 days. Moghe's (1951) obser- vations differ from the observations of Mar- shall (1947) on the same species, but in Sri Lanka, thereby indicating that this species dif- fers in its reproductive habits in different re-

gions with different climatic conditions. Brosset (1962a), while studying the ecology of Rou~ settus leschenaulti, mentioned, "from the data available, this species appears to have two periods of parturition every year, the first in March and the second in August, the latter concerning a small number". Each time a single young is born. With respect to Pteropus gig- anteus he reported that "the periodicity of the reproductive cycle is very regular, and that only a single parturition takes place every year at least in Western India". In a preli- minary note Gopalakrishna (1964) reported that Rousettus leschenaulti breeds more than once in the year, that the females undergo copulation within a short time after the young are delivered in April, and that a single young is born each time. Pregnancy alternates bet- ween the two uterine cornua in successive cycles.

Mutere (1965 & 1967) noted the occur- rence of delayed implantation in the tropical African fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, which has a strict periodicity of reproduction although inhabiting a region almost squarely on the i equator (latitude 20' N). Copulation in this species is immediately followed by ferti- lization during April-June, but the implanta- tion of the embryo does not take place until about October. Unimplanted embryos were present in the uterus between June and Octo- ber. Progressively advanced stages of the em- bryo were noticed from October to February and deliveries occurred during February and March. Although the uterus is bicornuate and perfectly symmetrical, ovulation and preg- nancy occur only on one side, either right or left, with about equal frequency, but never on both sides at the same time.

The foregoing review of earlier literature reveals that not only is there no detailed study of the breeding habits of any Indian fruit bat,

2

BREEDING HABITS IN SOME INDIAN BATS— I

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but the little information which is available, indicates that there are considerable differences in the breeding habits of the different species. Hence, it was felt that a detailed study of the reproductive biology of the Indian fruit bat, Rousettus leschenaulti would be of interest and value.

Material and methods

The specimens of Rousettus leschenaulti were collected at random at frequent intervals from an underground tunnel near Bibika- Mukbara at Aurangabad, Maharashtra State. A few collections were also made from the dungeons of a dilapidated fort near Kandar about 200 air kilometres from Aurangabad. No segregation of the specimens on the basis of sex, age or season was noticed in either of the localities.

Collection of specimens was started on 11th January 1964 and continued until 7th May 1966 in such a manner that every calendar month of the year is represented by one col- lection or more. A collection diary mention-

Table 2

Month wise collection of specimens

Month

$ $

9 9

Total

Jan.

73

95

168

Feb.

62

70

132

Mar.

68

77

145

Apr.

109

162

271

May

46

44

90

June

38

55

93

July

19

40

59

Aug.

17

11

28

Sept.

29

34

63

Oct.

9

19

28

Nov.

68

67

135

Dec.

70

85

155

Total

608

759

1367

ing the details of the description of each spe- cimen was maintained. Table 1 gives the sum- mary of the collection diary, and table 2 gives the month-wise distribution of the collections.

The specimens were killed by chloroform and, after recording their body weights, they were dissected and the reproductive organs and the accessory reproductive structures were removed and fixed in various fixatives. The tissues were sectioned at 8 to 10 /* thickness after following the usual procedure of dehy- dration by passing through graded series of ethanol and embedding in paraffin. The sec- tions were stained in Ehrlich's haematoxylin and counterstained with eosin and mounted in DPX after clearing in xylol.

Altogether 1367 specimens were studied for the present work. The group of specimens collected on a given date exhibited almost the same characteristics during the three years the observations were made. Hence, in the follow- ing descriptions only the date and the month are mentioned where pertinent except where the mentioning of the year has a special sig- nificance.

Observations and discussion

1 . Morphology of the female reproductive organs

As in most other species of bats so far des- cribed, excepting the members of the family Phyllostomatidae, the uterus is bicornuate and the uterine cornua are morphologically sym- metrical. The ovaries, which are ellipsoidal in shape, are slightly flattened dorsoventrally. The ovarian bursa has an oblique slit-like opening on its median side so that the peri- ovarial space is in communication with the peritonial cavity. The Fallopian tube on each side arises on the mesial aspect of the ovarian bursa adjacent to the slit in the bursa, curves

5

JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 74

towards the lateral sides after passing across the ventral aspect of the ovary, and opens near the cranial end of the uterus. Although the two uterine cornua meet externally their lum- ina remain separate, and open into the vagina through independent cervical canals. The cra- nial half of the vaginal canal is broad, and the cervix protrudes as a hemispherical bulb into this cavity. The lumen of the vagina is narrow in the caudal half. A distinct, but flat- tened, clitoris is present abutting against the ventral surface of the vaginal wall near the vaginal orifice.

A pair of mammary glands are present, one on each of the ventrolateral sides of the tho- rax, and the nipples, which are prominent in the parous forms, are directed laterally. 2. Breeding habits

The examination of table 1 reveals some interesting features. Pregnant females occur in all the months of the year except August to October. Secondly, two deliveries occur in the year, once during March-April, and a second time during July. Thirdly, within a short period after delivering the young in March- April, every female becomes pregnant again, but after the second delivery in July, the next pregnancy does not commence until the follow- ing year. Thus, the period from August-No- vember may be considered as the period of sexual quiescence for this species.

The females collected on 2nd November had not copulated, but all the parous and the mature non-parous females collected on 6th November had undergone copulation as evi- denced by the fact that the vaginal canal was full of secretion from the seminal vesicle of the male and the uterine lumen contained sperms. Evidently all mature females copulate in a very sharply defined period in the first week of November. Ovulation takes place after copulation in this species as revealed by

the fact that the ovary had not released the ovum in most of the females collected on 6th November, although the females had under- gone copulation. Tubal ova and early free blastocysts were present in females collected on 9th and 17th November respectively. Un- mistakable early pregnancy as indicated by the swelling of one of the uterine cornua was noticed in several females collected on 20th November (PI. I fig. A).

Table 1 and PI. I fig. A reveal that not ail the females become pregnant in November, and during the period from 9th November to 19th December there were many pregnant and a few non-pregnant females in each collection. Whereas all the parous females collected dur- ing this period were pregnant, among the non- parous females only some were pregnant. The parous females can be distinguished from the non-parous ones on the basis of the nature of the mammary nipples, which are large in the former and insignificant in the latter. The stage of pregnancy was more or less the same in all pregnant females collected on a given date during this period (PI. I Fig. A). This indicates that pregnancy must have started at about the same time in all these females.

Every female collected between 22nd De- cember and 13th of the following March was pregnant. The absence of non-pregnant fema- les in the collections during this period cannot be an accident because several collections were made during these months. Moreover, mention has already been made that there is no segre- gation of the specimens on the basis of sex, age or season. Hence, the data lead to the inevitable conclusion that all females are preg- nant during the period from 22nd December to the middle of the following March. Evid- ently, the few non-parous females, which do not copulate until 19th December, undergo copulation about this time and become preg-

6

BREEDING HABITS IN SOME INDIAN BATS— I

nant. Thus, in each collection during the months from January to the middle of March the females could be recognized into two dis- tinct categories on the basis of the size of the gravid uterine cornu. Some were distinctly in more advanced stages of pregnancy than the others, pregnancy having commenced in the beginning of November in the former and in the third week of December in the latter (PL I Figs. B & C). The young ones were deliver- ed also in two batches the first during the middle of March and the second during the last week of April or early in May.

A very early stage of the development of the embryo (cleaving egg) was noticed in a female collected on 9th November, and a fe- male with an young at the breast was captured on the 13th of the following March. This must have delivered the young just a few hours be- fore capture as borne out by the facts that the umbilical cord was still having a blood clot, the eyes of the young one were not yet open and there was a large clot of blood in the vagina of the mother. Therefore, one can con- clude that the gestation period is about 125 days allowing a margin of a couple of days on either side from the date of which the cleaving egg was noticed (9th November) to the date of parturition (13th March).

Within a short time after the young are delivered in March-May, the females undergo copulation, and a second pregnancy commen- ces within a few days after parturition. Every adult female experiences post-partum preg- nancy during this period. This is revealed by the fact that every female in lactation collect- ed during March, April and May was also pregnant. In each of these cases the second pregnancy was borne in the uterine cornu con- tralateral to the one in which the previous pregnancy was carried. -Hence, the adult fe- males collected during March, April and early

May are either in advanced stages of preg- nancy or they have delivered the young and have again become pregnant (PL I Fig. D). Since parturitions of the first cycle occur in two batches, the pregnancies of the second cycle also commence in two batches. The first batch of pregnancies of the second cycle be- gins about the third week of March and the second batch about the end of April or the beginning of May.

A few young ones, free from their mothers, were collected on 19th April. Assuming that these were delivered in the first batch (about 13th March), it is evident that the lactation period lasts for about 35-40 days. During this time the females carry an young each at the breast and an embryo in one of the uterine cornua. Thus, the lactation period of the first cycle overlaps the gestation period of the second.

Although every adult female becomes preg- nant after parturition in March-May, it ap- pears as if the second pregnancy does not go to completion in all the females. From about the beginning of June progressively more and more females appear to lose their embryos as revealed by the fact that, amongst the adult females collected during June and early part of July, there were some which were non- pregant. (The exact manner in which the em- bryos are lost is not known). Consequently, the number of females, which deliver the young in the second cycle, is much less than the number that becomes pregnant in March- May. Females in very advanced stages of pregnancy were collected on 10th July 1965. Many females, each carrying an young one at the breast, were collected on 24th July 1965. From the size of the attached young ones, whose body weights ranged from 14 to 15 gm, one can conclude that these might have been delivered 2 to 4 days before. Since the gesta-

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JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 74

tion period has been shown to be of about 125 days, it is evident that such of the females which deliver the young around the 20th July must have conceived some time in the third week of March.

No female was found to be pregnant after the 24th of July. This suggests that all the females, which experience post-partum preg- nancy late in April must have lost their em- bryos, because, if these females had carried the conceptus to full term, they should have delivered the young some time during the end of August or the beginning of September, since the gestation period is about 125 days. Obviously, these must have been the few fe- males, which had not copulated until the 19th December in the previous year, but underwent copulation and became pregnant about this time in the previous year.

There is perhaps a considerable loss of the new born young during July and the following weeks, as revealed by the fact that during July and August, although several females in full lactation were collected, many of these were not carrying the young at the breast.

The pregnancy cycles of Rousettus leschen- aulti can be summarised as follows:

First Cycle: From November to the end of the following April. This includes two waves of pregnancy as follows (1) Copula- tion during the early part of November and parturition about the middle of the follow- ing March. This refers to all the parous fe- males and to a few non-parous females. (2) Copulation about the third week of December and parturition at about the end of the follow- ing April or early in May. This applies to the few non-parous females, which had not copul- ated in November.

Second Cycle: Post-partum preg- nancy from March-May to about the third week of July. In this are included two waves

of pregnancy as follows

(1) Copulation in about the third week of March followed by pregnancy.

This refers to all the females which deliver the young ones during about the middle of March. It is not certain if all these females carry the pregnancy to full term and deliver the young. There may be some loss of embryos. Those females, which do carry the foetuses to full term, deliver the young by the end of the third week of July.

(2) Copulation during the last week of April or early in May.

These invariably lose their embryos and hence they never carry the pregnancy to full term.

From the foregoing account of the breed- ing habits of Rousettus leschenaulti it is evid- ent that this species, with two quick pregnan- cies in a year, incorporates both the Autumn breeding pattern as in most other Pteropidae so far described (Baker & Baker 1936; Mar- shall 1947) and Megaderma lyra lyra (Gopala- krishna 1950; Ramakrishna 1951; Ramaswamy 1962) and Hipposideros fulvus fulvus (Patil 1968) among the Microchiroptera, and the spring breeding pattern as in several tropical and sub-tropical Microchiroptera (Baker & Bird 1936; Gopalakrishna 1947, 1958; Brosset 1962a,b,c, 1963; Anand Kumar 1965). In ex- periencing a quick post-partum oestrus, Rou- settus leschenaulti resembles Cynopterus sphinx sphinx (Ramakrishna 1947) amongst Megachiroptera and Nycteris luteola (Mat- thews 1942), Desmodus rotundus (Wimsatt & Trapido 1952) and Taphozous longimanus (Gopalakrishna 1954, 1955) amongst the Microchiroptera.

3 . Number of young and the symmetry of the female genitalia. In each pregnancy Rousettus leschenaulti bears a single young, either in the right or in

8

BREEDING HABITS IN SOME INDIAN BATS— I

the left cornu of the uterus. Evidently, there is no physiological dominance of one side of the genitalia over the other. Further, preg- nancy alternates between the two sides of the genitalia in successive cycles (Gopalakrishna 1964, 1969). Thus, after delivery in March- April, the next pregnancy (which follows within a few days after delivery) is carried in the cornu contralateral to the one in which the earlier pregnancy was borne. This is evi- denced by the following facts. In most of the females, in which early pregnancy was noticed in the second cycle, the contralateral uterine cornu had not come back to normality. The corpus luteum of the previous pregnancy could be detected in the ovary of the con- tralateral side for quite some time after the second pregnancy had started. This was con- clusively demonstrated for this animal by Gopalakrishna (1964). In those females, which carry the pregnancy to parturition in July in the second cycle, the corpus luteum of this pregnancy remains until even after the next pregnancy commences in the following No- vember, so that, in these animals, the preg- nancy in the second year occurs in the cornu opposite to the one in which pregnancy oc- curred during the previous summer. Apparent- ly, the protracted persistence of the corpus luteum until about mid-pregnancy of the next cycle is an important factor which brings about a regular alternation in ovulation between the two ovaries. It is not possible to state as to whether this would be the case with regard to those females from which the embryos were lost during the summer pregnancy. There does not appear to be any physiological dominance of one side over the other in the females ex- periencing their first pregnancy.

Except some members of the family Ves- pertilionidae (Lyon 1903; Ramaswami 1933; Gopalakrishna 1947; Uchida 1950; Madhavan

1971), which normally bear more than one young in each litter, most other bats, which have been so far studied, carry a single young in each litter. In such monotocous bats there is a tendency for the physiological dominance of the right side over the left side (Robin 1881; Jones 1917; Matthews 1937, 1942) ex- cept in Megaderma lyra lyra (Gopalakrishna 1950; Ramakrishna 1951; Ramaswamy 1962) and Hipposideros fulvus julvus (Patil 1968) where the left side shows dominance. In Rhinolophus hipposideros minutus (Matthews 1937) the left ovary does not even produce mature ova. Pregnancy alternates between the two sides of the genitalia in successive cycles in Desmodus roiundus (Wimsatt & Trapido 1952) and Taphozous longimanus (Gopala- krishna 1954, 1955), where a single young one is brought forth each time. The condition in Rousettus leschenaulti is, therefore, similar to that in Desmodus rotundas (Wimsatt & Trapido 1952) and Taphozous logimanus (Gopalakrishna 1954, 1955). 4. Growth and maturity.

There seems to be a considerable difference between the males and the females with res- pect to the age at which sexual maturity is attained in Rousettus leschenaulti. Table 1 re- veals that during the breeding season, whereas all the females become pregnant, many males have immature gonads. This indicates that the females attain sexual maturity in the very first breeding season after their birth, but the males do not attain sexual maturity until at least the second breeding season. Further, the lowest body weight of the female showing unmistak- ably pregnancy is 55 gm, but in the case of the males their gonads are immature until they reach a body weight of 73 gm. Hence, the weight at which the sexual maturity is reached is about 55 gm in the females and about 73 gm in males.

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(a) Female

The new born young weighs about 12 gm as is evidenced by the fact that the lowest body weight of the young one attached to the breast of the mother was 12 gm, and the highest weight of the foetus at full term was also 12 gm. The first wave of delivery per- taining to the first cycle occurred in the middle of March, and the first batch of young ones free from the mothers' breasts were collected on 39th April The lowest body weight of the free young one was 37 gm. Evidently, the mothers carry their young for about 35 to 40 days during which period the young grow very rapidly and increase by nearly three times in their weight before they are weaned. The second batch of young ones are delivered during